The Myths - ¿Pure Fantasy?

The use of the expression "myth" as a lie or invention is widespread among us; without forgetting this use, we intend to open other dimensions of the myth that they are completely excluded in that characterization.
To do this, we clarify that the myths are stories whose main purpose is not to entertain but to convey a particular spiritual instruction. It can be summarized in two thematic areas: on the one hand, information that a human group considered valuable to the survival. On the other hand, everything that allow emerge and strengthen the identity of the community and its members. The spiritual instruction will be then, for a person or a community, a valuable support for addressing the challenges of its evolution.
In this sense we are wary of the proposals of personal evolution to be carried out by an individual atomized and exiled from their roots. Therefore, the spiritual instruction of the myth can be understood as a "building from the inside"; our individuality is re-mean in the community to which we belong.
It is no surprise then that the myth condenses - through their gods, heroes and monstrous beings, their tests and fighting, its objects loaded with high symbolic value- the possible paths, warnings and obstacles lurking, in the task of the personal and collective evolution.
If we ask for a moment: why we continue captivating - even transferred to cinema, sometimes with its limitations and other, with his greatness- Achilles, Ulysses, Hercules, Medea, Helen of Troy and the loves of Aphrodite and Ares? Why we are baffled by the Titans, the Giants and the battles of Zeus? Why arouses our admiration the trinity of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva and the history of Romulus and Remus in the origins of Rome? Why fall many of our prejudices? What do they tell us the men of maize from the Popol Vuh; Elal, the hero of the Tehuelche mythology? To mention only a few.
The answer is that if the myth were just fantasy and invention, a mere adornment literary, probably these figures do not would echo in us. Echo because what they do and starring, is not something that happened in the past but something that happens continuously in each one of our lives and in the lives of the communities.

Although we are lost the origin of the myth, its messages are as current today as they were at the time when he began to be reported. Because they originate in archetypes that each culture transformed to your style. That is why there are many myths - and even more, different versions of the same myth - and all are "true". The myths are, as the wise men say "what it is worth to be told".


Psychology of love and hate

They arrived to the psychologist visit. At the first moment they showed cold, allowing me to see the distance that separated them. When they started to talk I could appreciate the resentment and bitterness which underlined their words, were the criticism and the reproaches which opened a crater between them. They did not hear, they interrupted each other with accusations.

"This is the last bullet", they manifested at the end. However, their gaze was more focused on the separation that in the meeting. To hear them I found how hard was to believe that they loved each other in the past. Each one appeared in front of the other blurred, stripped of the qualities that a day were recognized and valued.

"From the beginning we had a lot of physical attraction between us, it was like a magnet that attracted us forever. Each time that we meet, we were felt joy to see us again, until one day we let ourselves be carried away by the passion and we started our love story. I liked all of it," she said with glowing eyes.

"I saw her as the woman more special than I had never known", he added without just looking at it, as if wanting to enjoy those feelings of long ago.

This story is repeated in the talks between friends, in their visits of the psychologists. Love can turn to hate when you are not careful. In scientific studies, among then the investigations of Sterberg, it was noted that the hatred could not be understood without the love already that both are closely related due to the similarity of their components.

The triangular theory of love argues that in love underlies three components: intimacy, the passion and the decision and commitment. These components are not static, are in constant interaction among them which give as a result the seven types of love: love, infatuation, empty love, romantic, sociable, fool and consummated.

On the other hand, the triangular theory of hatred is just the opposite of the same components. Denial of intimacy, which seeks the untying emotional and is powered by the rejection; passion in the hatred in the form of fury and commitment in the hatred which devalues the person to justify the abandonment.

Also the neurosciences have obtained results which help to better understand why it is so easy to move from love to hate. From a biological point of view, hatred enables many brain areas and many regions that are activated when you hate are the same as when you are in love.

The hatred is brewing in the small things that we not resolve properly, as occurs in the case of our partner, and this creates circles of fire in which many times just burn us. We began to throw gas on the fire when the other does not meet our expectations with regard to what we expect of the people loved and we began to accumulate complaints.

The heartache arrives with the negation of everything we thought and imagined about the other person, we do not value and appreciate its qualities anymore and we blur internally the image of that person unique and different who we fell in love with.

In this process there are usually at the beginning many attempts to cover up or justify the pain that produces the disappointment. However, progresses the experience of disagreement, converts the relationship in a big black dot, from which we only see the negative. At this point, it is already installed the hate in our hearts and established the mechanism of projection, we blame the other of our suffering and you hate because it leaves naked our weaknesses, our dependence and our insecurity.

The people most vulnerable to accommodate feelings of hate are those which have low self-esteem, because they feel attacked more easily than people sure of themselves. The insecurity that prevails in the people with a self-esteem devalued, coupled with comparisons, the feelings of inferiority, the low tolerance to the frustration, fear, the complex and intolerance, avoid to manage appropriately their emotions so they are sources of hatred in their personal and social relations.

The hatred corrodes who feel it; generates bad mood and may even lead to health problems such as insomnia, stress, anxiety or depression and considerably weakens the immune system.

The hatred equal to the love implies a "Installation". When we cease to be installed in the hatred, we recovered our ability to see the other in all its dimensions, and we can look from the loving feeling that favors the encounter.


Love and the Tarot

Love is a feeling that not knows limits; even people with more coldness of heart have experienced this feeling. Many people feel it and have been disappointed him. The Tarot of Love has an answer to all the questions that take place in their life. We talk a little bit about some Tarot cards that are in direct relation with love:

• Card of Lovers; is a card that says a lot by itself. Despite that its interpretation is related to the context of the situation, on a general level expresses and alludes to the feeling and connection that exists between two people.

• Two of Cups; it is very related to the monogamous relationships and also alludes to the symbolism of link and connection between two human beings. When interpreting it should be kept very into account aspects such as conditions of happiness of couple.

• Ten of Cups - is the representation of a type of brotherly love, as it is generated within the family core of human beings. The emergence of this card in the reading of the Tarot of Love of a person, indicates something positive with regard to the affective ties of his life.

• Four of Wands: is a card that alludes to the love from a security point of view and the good atmosphere that arises in each household. This card also represents the step of a relationship of single courtship, to something more serious as a compromise.

• Ten of Coins: in terms of love, this card reflects mainly the very well established relations in the long term.

• Ace of Cups: heralds the arrival of a new relationship that will enrich the life of the person and it is a beautiful card; resembles the feelings that emerge in adolescence.

• The Empress; is beautiful, beautiful and eloquent and this card represents the love in various aspects of being; is interpreted many times with maternal dyes and another not. It also represents sensuality and that makes it even more be interpreted as a symbol of union between people.

• The Emperor: from the point of view of the Tarot of Love, is seen as a symbol of loyalty and very long-term agreements; can also be misinterpreted if we do not analyze the specific situation of each person who is reading the Tarot.

The reading of the Tarot of Love is a very serious procedure and has to be taken into account by all readers of tarot at the global level; each context of reading is different and specific knowledge of each fortune teller, it is the key to the user of the service, will feel entirely comfortable with what was said.


Discovering new realities

The classical physics of the great Isaac Newton is based on observations related to everyday objects, since the fall of an apple to planets in orbit. Its laws were tested extensively since its discovery in the XVII century. But, when physicists began to create tools to investigate the tiny particles of atoms, discovered something that left them astonished: the physics of Newton was not working in the sub-atomic world. Throughout the twentieth century was creating a completely new scientific description to explain the world of the tiny. This new knowledge, known as quantum mechanics or quantum physics, does not come to replace the physics of Newton, who works and very well to explain the large objects, macroscopic. The new physics, in contrast, is discovered for reaching the subatomic world.

The universe is a miracle, as I would say the philosopher and mathematician Russian P. Ouspensky. There would appear two groups of laws that govern the universe. At the level of the daily lives of all of us, things are explained according to the laws of the dynamics and movement that discovered Newton (the laws explain the bodies in movement, they allow and calculate trajectories), as well as the law of gravity, etc. However, when we arrived to a smaller scale, at the level of the atoms, displays a different set of laws. Are the quantum laws.

In 1900, the German physicist Max Planck first used the term quantum applied to science. It comes from a Latin word that means simply sum or quantity, but is used to designate the smallest unit of energy or the matter.

What quantum theory has revealed leave us as stunned since it sounds like science fiction: the particles can be in two or more places at once. (See the movie "And thou what do you know?" for more information). Einstein said that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light, but quantum physics have demonstrated that the subatomic particles are communicated to appear instantly, regardless of the extension of the space. Although the instantaneous speed has been demonstrated by the quantum physics, who also referred to this in his teachings was Gurdjieff.

The classical physics was reductionist. It was based on the premise that only if you know the different parts, you can finally understand everything. The new physics is more organic and holistic; paints a picture of the universe as a unified whole, whose parties are interconnected and influence over each other.

Perhaps the most important thing is that quantum physics has cleared the sharp division between subject and object, between observer and observed, that has dominated the western science.

In quantum physics, the observer influences the observed object. There are no observers isolated from the mechanical universe, but that all participates in the universe.

The psychological and philosophical implications of these findings are extraordinary. Because if the observer is not impartial, therefore the interest settles in study to which notes, i.e. the attention of the study is directed toward the same mind of man. Therefore depth psychology and quantum mechanics are closely related. W.Heisenberg (Nobel Prize for Physics) argued that the mind was a factor inherent to the problem. Referred to the act of the measurement as to the "act of registering the result in the mind of the observer".

According to David Bohm, physical and at the same time disciple of Krishnamurti, quantum mechanics reveals that the reality is a unified whole in which everything is connected at a profound level that goes beyond the limits of ordinary space and time. Bohm launched the idea that there is a "implied order" from which emanates everything known to man. This same reflection to which arrives David Bohm since its field, physics, is that up Jung from the field of the science of the mind or Psychology when he referred to the archetypes (model paramount) as factors computers of human life. And his conception of the collective unconscious, which is one for the whole of humanity. That is to say, there are 7 billion inhabitants according to UN, 7 billion egos and a single collective unconscious for the entire humanity. Jung, personally, helped the development of Quantum Physics, teaching, guiding and directing in his ideas to the Nobel Prize of Physics Wolfgang Pauli. That is why the Professor Leon Azoulay incorporated into the program of training of Evolutionary Psychology an item about the Quantum Physics and its relationship with our psyche.


Transformation through the Love

Who are Venus and Pluto?

In Greek Mythology Aphrodite - whose Roman name is Venus - is the goddess who symbolizes the openness and responsiveness. Open ourselves to others, to receive them and to accept them, that is what we usually call love. Venus in our natal chart is the energy that speaks to us about how we complement with others and how we are open to ourselves. Pluto was the name that was given to Hades, the god of the underworld. Brother of Zeus and Poseidon, in the partition of the universe Pluto received the invisible world, the world of the occult and also the kingdom of the dead. In the astrological symbolism Pluto is the strongest energy of the system, the energy that carries out the processes of deepest transformation, which carries us beyond our own limits. It also identifies with the "Death", as a generator of those changes, generally not chosen, we die to what we were to be reborn as different beings. When the planet of love and receptivity (Venus) is in contact with the god of the underworld (Pluto) in a natal chart means, in the first place, that none of the two planets is "free", that these energies are together in the life of these people, and in any situation in which is involved one of them the other will be involved too. As Pluto is one of the trans-personality planets - that is that goes beyond the personality - we will have to wait for the transformation that appears in our life from the outside, through love and intimate relationships. When the person connects with the energy of love, Pluto emerges from the depths of his psyche to connect mercilessly with the transform. Why mercilessly? Because we usually want that nothing changes and we don't want to transform ourselves. The myth tells us that when Hades fell in love with the maiden Kore (Persephone), Demeter's daughter, did not hesitate to come out from the depths of the earth and kidnapped her, carrying her to his kingdom to make her his wife. This act had been implicitly authorized by Zeus (Jupiter), symbol of the evolutionary force, i.e. that this fall to the underground world brings us an evolutionary learning. In addition to that, Pluto means "rich", another track important to think that there is something very valuable in the experience that comes from the hand of Pluto. As Hades is the ruler of a world where the sunlight doesn't reach - that we associate with the consciousness - this is an energy that operates from the unconscious. However, it takes contact with it will allow us to bring light to some of these hidden content and to expand our consciousness. After fall to the underground world we know more about ourselves.

A basic script: Beauty and the Beast

In the life of a person with this aspect in his natal chart, the depth, the emotional extremism and the sexual intensity of his relationships ensures a compulsive fall to the dark world. This can be said as: high doses of jealousy, - which, in other words, means possessiveness and desires of control of the other-, subjugation and loss of your own will. Your favorite slogan could be: "until death do us part". And in some extreme cases, this can become literal. There may also be antecedent of this game of poles in the family history: a powerful father, a mother who was subjugated, or some other variant that makes this indent as already known. Therefore, for these people are not very easy to think in free and detached relations, in principle because of someone with the polarity Venus/Pluto, this kind of relationships are not attractive. The desire is to devour the other taking the risk of being devoured.

The attraction of the opposite poles

At the base of the hermetic philosophy we find the law of polarity: everything is double, everything has two poles. The polarity is played on this aspect can be summarized as follows: Power - submission, however, both poles belong to the same person, since he/she has Venus in contact with Pluto in his natal chart. If you identify with one of these poles and plans to the other, which shows you the outside is not more than a mirror of your own energy.
The key point is no doubt comes to understand this and the first step would be to ask: why is this happening to me?
As is the case with every pair of opposites the person elected, according the general balance of energies in his letter, placed in one of these poles and you screened the other pole to the companion of turn.
However, although it appears to be obvious, but it is not easy to be discovered and generally the person feels irresistibly drawn toward one of the poles, thinking that has nothing to do with the other.
This is the beginning of a journey of transformation whose ultimate goal is to integrate to the fullest extent possible this pair of opposites and thus achieve an expansion of consciousness from go disarming those projections.
This expansion will be the obvious result to recover for itself something that had projected in the outside. Carl Jung said that the civilized man dragging behind the tail of a saurio.
This "saurio queue" is the most archaic part of our psyche, our most primitive; there are crouching all the emotions that we have suppressed during our first years of life, with relation to others or to ourselves and that, is being considered unacceptable by our environment, hid in the farthest place possible of our consciousness.
We are talking about the anger, envy, jealousy, greed, lust, all emotions that culture labeled "the ugly, dirty and bad", but they are very far from being the only reason. As we already said there is something valuable in this experience only to discover it can be difficult and often painful.

To Be Venus

Here, the energy of Venus is not satisfied opening to another, nor did he reach with please - obviously because neither reaches who plays the role of Pluto - but that is submitted to the power of the other. Imagine a hyphen basis. In a belief the person Venus/Pluto will feel fascinated by someone, which are then you will discover as a "freak", and it will be very difficult to realize that this has to do with it. Venus is also related with the ability to accept and here it is necessary to accept the dark side of another, and of course also the own, and love him in spite of everything.
Other people can leave a little side the dark aspects of their partners, but which has a contact Venus/Pluto, precisely will be attracted by these dark aspects. If the other is presented as someone who could get to engulf him what makes that it is in this link? What is it that makes it attractive? Precisely that darkness that does no more than to reveal its own dark interior side.
It is important here to clarify that for a projection to take hold, the other pole will be projected on someone who actually has to do with that energy and that will also be ready to do its part in the choreography.
But this is a problem of another, with which the person Venus/Pluto should not be confused: we cannot change to another, we only have to worry about to realize the part that corresponds to us. This does not mean that the other is not what it is.
For a projection work we need to hang in the hanger adequate. What it teaches us this aspect is that the only force able to defeat Pluto is Venus, but of course, not by force, not struggling with it but accepting and loving him, but without losing sight, without undergoing.
If I accept the other as he/she is, just the power struggles. Pluto puts Venus in the urgent situation of being truly receptive, to love seriously. Pluto is a developer of Venus.
You can also accept that the link is not for her, and releasing, let it go. "As it is inside, it is out", another basic principle, means that the other makes us of mirror, which is there to show us something that actually belongs to us.
 But let us look at some of the features of this script base. There will be, typically, a permanent feeling of dissatisfaction in the affective links, nothing is adequate, nothing hits you. Venus/Pluto has a thirst for the absolute projected in the couple, which - there should be no illusions -- it is impossible to achieve.
That is why the person feels that love, that happiness is not for her/him, that each time you love conflicts begin, the struggles and sorrow appears. If this aspect is not working, in the long run some people can lead to the solitude. If it is identified with the pole of Venus will be submitted to another, that the monitor and exercise a power with a tendency to be absolute.
Of course that this is not the only face of Pluto or much less, but whether it was planned to an energy that is own, it appears in its forms poorer, therefore, while the person does not understand that this is his own energy, he will come from "outside", embody in your partner, showing its worst aspects.
If the person with Venus/Pluto sees itself supplemented by something that owns it and not left at liberty, this can generate extreme sensations: "I am united to something that rejection; but that I cannot leave". So it is understandable that the person is frightened to love: each time that falls in love, Pluto slips into his life, and the more you feel the person identified with the bright and friendly pole of Venus, dark will appear more powerful.
The first step to overcome this aspect is to begin to recognize your own energy of power in the reflection of the power of the other. To the extent that the person begins to realize that something of this quality belongs to you, to the extent that begins to take charge of its part in this script, the onslaught of outside will lose strength. If I can bring to light my darker side it might appear in my context, in my world, a loving energy capable of understanding, and there I will be starting to reverse the polarity.

To Be Pluto

The other option involves that the person is identified with Pluto. In such a case, there will be no one that satisfies emotionally.
Will be entrenched in a position ultra-defensive. I have met people who were in this position and that they confessed that never, ever had fallen in love. That did not understand what I wanted to say that. That is to say, never to be identified with their own vulnerability, with their own responsiveness, with their own capacity for delivery.
When a person with this aspect is in that situation is closed to itself and toughened and being defensive. They have always had the power in their links. The fragility of another, its weakness, its delivery, attracts you, because she feels that being what it is not that the complete but, as there is no challenge, ends causing irritation and boredom. However, she is not prepared to let him go, because it is precisely in those situations where you can play their role.
The result, as in the previous case, it is a link to be highly unsatisfactory for both parties. These are the mixtures. These people have to do the work of connecting with what they without doubt would call "weakness"; they have to fall in love and surrender. Once they have done so they no longer feel attracted by what they do not believe that they have and the experience of love can take another course.

The alchemy

The task of the person Venus/Pluto is to discover the attractiveness of the links of parity in where the power to circulate from one to another, i.e. in which power is shared, but it will be a long road and it will not be possible without having gone through the two poles.
The polarization involves identified blindly with the pole of the impotence or with the pole of the omnipotence. The experience of moving from one pole to the other allows you to connect with the power, an intermediate point in which each one has power but not all power.
 Pound the zodiacal sign associated to love and marriage, whose Regent is precisely Venus, has as a symbol a balance with its two dishes in balance and in each one of those dishes is each one of the members of the couple.
An asymmetric link is not a true "marriage", at least that is what the astrological symbolism teaches us and that is the learning that proposes this aspect in the natal chart of a person. In any link there will always be something of projection, but if there is no discomfort, might not have so much need to work on that.
However, if there is conflict, discomfort, if the other plays a role that makes you feel bad, there is something to correct and, with all safety, something of ourselves to look.


Who is the hero in the mythology?

The mythological hero is a symbol that brings together multiple meanings, from which you can give an account of the human complexity. We need to differentiate the mythological hero from the "super-hero", better known through the cinema, animations and  the comics. The actions of the super-hero respond to the exclusionary polarity of the good and the evil, the light and the dark, black and white. But thinking in human life, this polarity is revealed false and with a tendency to shadow everything.
A first feature of the mythological hero is that it makes reference to a somebody who evolves rather than to be in a unique position and determined for ever. The hero is more a journey, a path, a way and a process than a substance.
A second feature of the hero is that, in his process to be an hero recognizes and accepts its own conditionals. Progressively, the hero leaves the conditioned, structured and secure and dares to what is new and original in a rectification movement of their actions.
We are realizing that the hero is not only a young man and almighty The hero is who assume the challenges that come from their own answers and authenticity. The mythology calls these challenges the "tests" in the way of the hero.
Numerous mythological episodes show us these tests: an example is the clash of the hero with monstrous and powerful beings that can destroy him, as Perseus facing Medusa; the heroes of the Popol Vuh resolving the tests imposed to them by the gods of the underworld; Psyche, carrying out the work asked by Venus; Elal, passing the exam of the Moon, to married with the Daughter of the Sun; Jason, daring to the trials submitted to him by the King Aeetes, possessor of the Golden Fleece.
Facing these tests and especially with the resolution of overcome them assumed by the hero, usually appears any figure that serves as an ad hoc ally: a god, a goddess, another individual, a set of individuals, a bird, a being from the vegetable world, a stone with certain properties. The ally, will bring him some help: will give him an object tool and an accurate indication that helps him avoid unnecessary rodeos or it is what will help him to know a substance that become him invulnerable to the hazards; in order, it is what assisted with valuable information and appropriate objects to pass through the tests.
After these tests, sometimes the hero emerges strengthened, accessing to a hidden treasure, finding the true love, rescuing a prisoner or releasing to the oppression entire communities. Other times, even not reaching what was proposed, however, in the movement of try he has learned many things, he is no longer the same as when he started. Something fundamental about what he has learned is to accept himself entirely, with his limitations and possibilities; he has dared to face their fears, self-deceptions and auto prosecutions which paralyzed him, and in the process, it has been gaining the most authentic and own of itself; now he feels and acts in the world as a being with more integrity and more opened to social and community life.
These lines are an invitation to us to return to look to the hero who brings us from the mythology, we have to stop projecting him in something from the outside, from strange cultures to our roots, from the tv shows, as the human models proposed to us by the large media corporations: the hero and the heroin are we ourselves when we act from the creative own - and not from the repetitive and imitator-, and with the enthusiasm we engender in the collective to which we belong.

The farmer prophet

Robert Nixon, a rural visionary with a reputation of mentally retarded, was born toward 1467 in a farm of the English county of Cheshire. He started to work as a waiter of tillage because he was too dumb to do anything else. He barely spoke, although sometimes he talked incomprehensible things. However, one day, while he was working, he made a pause, He looked surprised and exclaimed: "Now, Dick! We are going, Harry! Very bad!!, Dick! Well done! Harry! Harry has triumphed!" Such exclamations, more coherent than they used to be, although also incomprehensible, filled of confusion to his colleagues, but the following day everything was clarified: At the same moment of the strange attack of Robert, the King Richard III died in Bosworth Field, and the winner of this decisive battle, Henry Tudor, became Henry VII of England.

The news of the bucolic fortuneteller did not take long to reach the new king, who was very intrigued, and who wanted to see him, Nixon was accompanied to the palace. He had not yet left the court, when full of anguish, he began to wander around the village shouting that Enrique had called him and that he was going to die of starvation.

Meanwhile, Enrique had planned a method to test the young prophet, and when Nixon was led into his presence he seemed to be embarrassed. He explained to him that he had lost a valuable diamond. Could you please help me to find it? Nixon then replied calmly, "Who can hide can find". Naturally, Enrique had hidden the diamond, and caused him such an impression the response that ordered to record whatever the boy said. What did he say? Duly interpreted, he predicted the civil war in England, death and abdication of their kings and the war with France. Also he predicted that the place of Nantiwich, in Cheshire, would be ravaged by a flood, which had not yet happened.

But the prophecy of most fear for Nixon was the most unbelievable of all: that he would die of hunger in the royal palace. To calm these worries, Enrique ordered that he would be given as much food as he wished and whenever he wished it, this order did not precisely contribute to make friends to the strange young in the real kitchen, whose staff, anyway resented his privileges.

However, a day Enrique left London, one of his officials was taking care of Nixon, to protect him from the bad intentions of the palace´s servitude, he enclosed Nixon in one of the King´s chambers. Urgent matters led him outside of London and he forgot to leave the key or instructions to take care of Robert. When he returned, the poor peasant had died of hunger.


Legend of the Rectory of Borley

It is said that in Borley, England, existed in the Benedictine monastery of the 13th century, a couple of religious. They escaped to live a love story. But they were captured, the monk was hanged, the nun was confined alive inside one wall of the monastery and the driver of the hearse beheaded.
On the ruins of the building, where the Rectory of Borley was built in 1863, lived Henry Bull and his family, in a Victorian mansion residence. Those who lived there 65 years (1863-1927), saw multiple paranormal events.
After the death of the rector Bull, the priest Smith was installed in the mansion and in 1929 told to the journalists from the Daily Mirror details about everything that was happening inside the mansion. Published on: doorbells and rings that sounded alone, a luminous figure dressed as a nun wandering through the garden, a carriage with horses guided by a coachman beheaded…etc.
They requested the assistance of the researcher Harry Price, who organized a meeting of spiritualism and a week after the parish priest and his wife left the house due to the violence of the phenomena.
Then the rectory passed to the hands of the reverend Foyter and similar phenomena happened. The ghosts were present, the bells rang, pounded strings, materialized and flying objects, even were heard screams heartbreaking. Mr Foyster, was launched from his bed, slapped and almost smothered by a mattress. After that, appeared written messages on the walls, Price discovered one of prophetic character that said: "This house will be burned to the ground". In 1935, Mr. Foyster left the house.
During the year 1938 was a time of abandonment, and the Price used it to gather a group of 48 volunteers for the study of the paranormal phenomena of the building.
And in February 1939, Captain William Greg, made reality the prophecy when an oil lamp fell to the ground in a violent manner and the building was burned; uncovering the remains of the confined nun to whom Price gave Christian burial, closing the case, and collecting their conclusions on two thick books.
In 1974, a group of Research of Enfield, headed by Ronal R. Russel, confirmed the existence of a paranormal phenomenology on Borley.
Each 28th of July, the nun appears and always performs the same route, known as the nun's Walk, an event that attracts thousands of spectators to "the most haunted house in England". In spite of the fact that the building was burned in 1939, there have been calculated more than two thousands of different supernatural cases.


The Chinese legend of the Blue Rose

A powerful emperor of China, wise and gentle, was very happy in his palace: his people were blessed under his government and his home, a paradise of love and peace. But there was something that he was concerned at the highest level. His only daughter, so beautiful, as smart, she was unmarried and did not show great interest in marriage.
The emperor wanted to find a worthy candidate for her, for which he proclaimed his desire to marry the princess. The aspirants to the hand of the young princess were many; at least one hundred and fifty. But the intelligent girl, found a way to avoid the provision that had taken his father. She said that she was willing to get married to obey the emperor, but very subtly, she requested a single condition for accepting her husband: who had to marry her, should bring her a Blue Rose.
The pretenders were discouraged by that request. No one had ever seen a blue rose. What garden of the world flourish that wonderful? And with the security that finding the Blue Rose was an impossible company, the majority of them resigned to marry the beautiful princess. Only three persisted: a rich Merchant, a Warrior and a High Chief of Justice. The Merchant was not a dreamer, but a very sensible man. So, very wisely, he went to the best flower shop in the city, where, with all security, he should find what he was looking for. He was wrong. The florist had not ever seen a blue rose in all his years of Merchant. But the rich Merchant offered a fortune in exchange for this strange flower and the florist promised to take care to search for it. The suitor Warrior, who had known wonderful lands in his campaigns, chose to head toward the country of the King of the Five Rivers. I knew it was a sovereign rich, in whose kingdom overflowing the treasures.
The Warrior departed accompanied by a hundred soldiers, and that armed retinue and dazzling, made a deep impression on the King of the Five Rivers, fearing an attack, ordered his servers to run to bring the blue rose to offer it to the gentleman who had made the request. A servant returned bringing in his hands a beautiful box. When he opened it, the Warrior was dazzled. Inside the box there was a beautiful sapphire carved with the form of a rose.
It was definitely a real present and the Warrior, sure of his triumph, returned with the jewel to his country. But the princess moved the head to contemplate the jewel. The present of the Warrior was not more than that, a precious stone, not a true flower. That gift did not correspond to the condition required. Little took the Merchant to know that his rival had failed and returned to urge his florist to get the blue rose. The Merchant was desperate without any result, until one day, the florist wife, full of cunning, believed to find the solution. Nothing easier than painting blue a white rose, and with it, the Merchant would win the hand of the Princess and them a large fortune. Impossible to describe the joy of the rich Merchant when the Merchant of flowers made him know that he had already found what he needed. Ran to the florist, took the petal blue flower and do not delayed a second to reach the palace. And when everyone believed that the Merchant had reached their prize, the intelligent Princess moved its beautiful head and said: "That is not what I want". This Rose has been tinted with a poisonous liquid that would cause the death of the first butterfly that pose on her. She did not accept neither the jewel of the Warrior nor the false pink flower of the Merchant.
I want a blue rose. In his turn, the High Chief of Justice, who had been seen the failure of his two rivals, saw that the field was free to him. Thought a lot of time in the way of finding the Blue Rose that the Princess wanted, and finally, an appropriate idea emerged in his mind. He visited in his workshop an exquisite artist, and requested him to make a fine glass, where he asked the artist to paint a blue rose. The artist took great care in his work, and when he presented to the High Chief of Justice, he did not hesitate a moment that the triumph was already his. With this security he presented to the Princess. The young woman was really admired with that work. No one had ever seen a glass of porcelain so beautiful and transparent, and the Blue Rose in it painted, it was a true work of art. But although she admitted the gift and thanked him with gracious gesture, she had to confess that it was not a rose painted what she wanted. Much regretted, but neither the High Chief of Justice had found what she wanted to grant his hand. And since then nobody returned to talk about the marriage of the Princess, nor was another aspirant to get her hand, much to the delight of the young.
But shortly after, something happened that should make her regret her ingenious trick. The people began to talk in the palace about a young troubadour that travel the country singing sweet songs. And one night the beautiful Princess walked with one of the maidens in the palace garden and came to her ears a sweet melody. The troubadour jumped the wall, and that evening he sang for her his most beautiful songs. The Princess and the troubadour fell in love, and the young man returned other nights to sing under her windows. More time greater was their love, and the troubadour wanted to present himself to the Sovereign to ask for the hand of the Princess. It was then when the beautiful young warned that the cunning that she had used to zoom out to her suitors would prevent also that she could marry with the troubadour, if he could bring the Blue Rose. Her father would also require him to bring the Blue Rose. And she knew that this was impossible. But her lover reassured her "his love could everything".
A great commotion occurred in the court when it became known that a new suitor was subjected to the test to find the Blue Rose and would be submitted with it. The troubadour went through between the row of courtiers and ladies, and came to the Princess. Tended the hand, and offered her a beautiful white rose moments before he had taken it of the palace garden. The princess smiled happy, and with the consequent astonishment of all, stated that this was exactly the blue rose she wanted. A murmur of surprise and indignation ran by the lounge, and the emperor also looked at her daughter, as if he believed that she had gone mad. But the saying was so blessed, which included all, cut immediately the talks saying that the princess was the one who had demanded that condition, and that if she, as smart as all the wise men of the court, admitted that the rose submitted to her was blue, nobody could doubt about it. Therefore, triumphed the love of the Chinese Princess.

Meridiana: The succubus lover of a Pope.

The demons and vampires are not only recurrent visitors of cemeteries, but they also lived in most of the medieval cuts, in each convent and library. In fact, even the Vatican wasn´t safe from them. Meridiana was a famous succubus, i.e. a female spirit prone to debauchery lover, very feared by monks, bishops, cardinals, and even by the pontiff.
The history of Meridiana was noted by Walter Map in his work of 1185 De Nugis Curialum, which means something like: The trifles of courtier. Walter Map maintains the hypothesis that Meridiana was the lover - and friend and counselor, and confidant- the mathematician and scholar Gerbert of Aurillac, who would become Pope Sylvester II, more known as the Pope of the Millennium, and whose pontificate, brief and agitated by continuing conflict, spread between 999 and 1003.
During its four years of Pope Sylvester II fought hard and with little success, against simony and the heresy that threatened to Rome. Its greatest ally in this crusade against the blasphemy crime was, strangely, one sent from the hell: Meridiana.
Go back in time to know the origin of this mythological story of love. As a young priest Gerbert of Aurillac fell madly in love with the daughter of the Provost of Rheims; case doubly unfortunate if we take into account their vows of chastity in addition to its ugliness. She unequivocally rejected, and perhaps with cruelty. Gerbert, desperate, fell into a deep melancholy.
In this awful state met Meridiana, who offered him money, wisdom, and above all his own body, delicate and perfect, under the condition that he be unconditionally faithful. Gerbert of Aurillac agreed and his career amounted very faster. It soon became Archbishop of Rheims, in Cardinal, Archbishop of Ravenna, and finally Pope.
Throughout his life he kept his relationship with Meridiana in a prudent secret. Walter Map noted with any logic that the powers of hell did not always work for their own benefit, and which often acted as true love toward the mortals. Meridiana fell in love sincerely of good Gerbert of Aurillac, even she was indulgent with some infidelities, as that remained with the daughter of the Provost of Rheims, who found him suddenly attractive once he was ordered Pope.
The relationship of Meridiana with the Pope Sylvester was, as they say, ideal. Intellectually stimulating during the day and epidermal during the evenings. For greater benefits, the supernatural presence of a diabolical agent - argue the demonologists- redoubles the force of the men of faith. Someday, before traveling to the East,
Meridiana was snatched by a breathtaking vision, which prophesied the end of his mistress: he will die saying mass in Jerusalem. Aware that his end was approaching, the Pope Sylvester made a public confession, regretted of his sins and departed quickly toward Jerusalem, where he died just at the end of the mass.
His body was moved to Rome in the middle of large laments and funeral processions. Even the fiercest papal lackeys managed to persuade Meridiana to abandon the procession. She soon accompanied him in death. During a council secret, a group of flexible ideology priests decided that this love, although unnatural and unjustifiable theologically, was pure in essence, and the body of Meridiana was deposited in the sarcophagus of the own Sylvester II in the Basilica of St John Lateran.
Those who have accessed to the crypt ensure that the common gravestone flows a thick steam and dark that announces the death of the Pope. Walter Map, less pious, ensured that in the evenings you can hear strange moans and jolts from the sarcophagus, accompanied by a kind of fog or sweat that condenses on the marble sacred, although reserves any type of interpretation on this mystery.


The history of the Magician Pope

The Middle Ages is a period of the history that has always been so mutilated. In the schools we learned that it was a stage of chaos and constant wars and conflicts created by uncultured and stubborn feudal lords. Some circumstances are certain, of the Middle Ages are studied the wars, successions, the feudal lords and some other important kings, leaving completely aside to those men who had the responsibility of civilization and the welfare of people. What really matters and defines a civilization is their culture, their social organization and the way of life of people in the city or in the country, and not that chaos that existed in the early centuries of the Middle Ages and so highlighted by the history books.
In the Middle Ages arose the Benedictines order which, in a society lacking of principles, they were worried about the wisdom of the people, they recovered old documents of the cultures of all the existing civilizations, thereby creating the cult aristocracy ready to govern worthily. 
Even the Benedictines were interested in the Arab culture, which was the owner of the science and the knowledge of the East, that was longed for the members of the Order of Saint Benedict. To this end they decided to expand them from France to Spain, encouraging the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula that was in the hands of the Muslims. But, while harangue to wield the sword against the Muslims, the Benedictines maintained contact already in Spain with the Arab culture as scientific and they knew that they would make progress.
Spain was a key point for the Benedictines, order which, in the midst of that profound moral and intellectual crisis, "fought" for having the know, attaining great influence at this time (this pioneering spirit would lead to the creation of the Order of Cluny) and giving great characters who, being completely unknown and forgotten today, shocked the entire medieval civilization. 
One of these characters was Gerbert d' Aurillac, also known as the Pope Sylvester II or the Pope Magician.

Gerbert, a young man with an intelligence nothing normal in his time.

On Gerbert and his entire life, even discounting what is legend, exceeds the imagination. Picturesque character and uploaded color, Gerbert is one of the most extraordinary geniuses that mankind has produced. It is unclear in what year Gerbert was born, although it is accepted it was between the years 945 and 950 in the Occitan region of the Auvergne, in France. 
Nor do we know very well if he was a descendant of a family dedicated to grazing in the rural area of Auvergne or, as it is suggested by some investigators, belonged to the family of the dukes of Aquitaine, seeing clearly that they are two very different theories, but is predominantly the first one.
Whatever was his offspring, Gerbert was admitted by the Benedictine monks of the abbey of Saint-Géraud d' Aurillac at the age of twelve years, where he studied the "trivium" and the "quadrivium" with the master Raymond Lavaur.
The Benedictines were fascinated by the intelligence that young Gerbert showed, fitting perfectly with the model of person that this order was looking for. In the year 963 arrived to venerate the relics of Saint Geraldo of Aurillac, that were preserved in the Abbey, the Conde Borrell II of Barcelona, a city which at that time was closed to the Hispanic Mark created by Charlemagne to stop the advance of the Saracens. 
Speaking with the Abbot, the count of Barcelona was surprised by the vast knowledge of the young Gerbert, to whom he offered to continue his education in his county, what Gerbert accessed. Already in the county of Barcelona, he continued his education in monasteries such as Vic or Ripoll where he matured his knowledge about science and where he entered in contact with Greek culture and with the arithmetic.
 This would be a passage of time to be mentioned in Gerbert education. He also stayed in Toledo and Cordoba, where he transformed himself into a wise person, since his intellectual training. As we have said before, the Benedictines wanted to own that knowledge that kept the Arab sealed after having been learned by other civilizations. The Arabs were well-informed of the sciences, being much wiser than the Christians, in addition to having studied things as the heretical gnosis, the Kabbalah and the Egyptian culture.
The Benedictines did not send Gerbert to these cities randomly, he was sent so as to enter in that Spain esoteric that concentrated all the knowledge of the moment in the hands of the Muslims. While Christians required any explanation of God, the Muslim scholars were experiencing and looking at the stars.
According to the English Chronicler, William of Malmersbury said that Gerbert had gone to Muslim cities like Toledo and Cordoba in search of knowledge of astrology and other sciences airtight, acquiring knowledge that would be disqualified. He also said that he learned magic formulas and discovering new inventions nonexistent in Christian Europe.
It is in these cities where they knew the number zero, which later would be introduced in Christianity when he became to be Pope, as well as replaced the roman numerals for the ones used by the Arabs. Gerbert exceeded all their teachers in knowledge less one, from who he wanted by all means to know his secrets; even he came to seduce his daughter. Gerbert left Spain and moved to Reims, where he amazed everyone by his high knowledge and raised the suspicion of others.

Gerbert appointed Pope: Sylvester II.

Thanks to the Benedictines, he was appointed Bishop of the city of Reims where he began to distribute at its headquarters the arithmetic, astronomy, the geometry and the music. This would be the time when the first graph, the globe, an astrolabe of great precision and a pendulum clock were built, until that moment unknown in Europe. To accomplish such inventions, quickly it began to circulate the rumor that Gerbert was a necromancer who had made a pact with the devil, because such inventions could only be made by the Malign. After several intrigues in Reims and after the death of the Pope, the Benedictines demonstrated their power in the Church and put Gerbert as Pope in the year 999. The recent Popes had belonged to the Benedictine order and to continue the tradition and also to be able to continue accumulating knowledge, they decided to place Gerbert, that was a sage who surprised the whole world that dealt with him. At this time Gerbert was transformed into Sylvester II, the Pope of the year 1000, while during his four years as Pontiff until his death in 1003 the people considered him as a warlock who had made a pact with the devil.

The Discoveries of Sylvester II. Did he discover the computer in the Middle Ages?

From his return in the Muslim world, Sylvester II deployed a revolutionary scientific activity without neither rate nor measure. He has bequeathed to us, and his books can be consulted in libraries, twenty-four mathematical works full of important discoveries, a treaty of geometry, a treaty of weights and measures, and even a treaty of the game of chess, which is not fortuitous if we remember that this game has a prominent esoteric significance. Sylvester II or Gerbert likely was also an alchemist, probably the first Christian alchemist. Tells an old legend in Aurillac that, still young, he had collected gold in the Jordan River by placing in the water a fleece of sheep to which joined a few pips. We do not know if at that time there were seekers of gold nuggets, but the procedure is similar to the practice of alchemy, he also was very advanced in the Ars Magna, since the precious metal was not within the reach of many. He taught at Reims, as well as astronomy and astrology which had been incorporated into their knowledge in Muslim Spain. In addition, he produced the first great accuracy astrolabe, as well as the first watch, free weights and pendulum. He also built a curious hydraulic component in which the differences of steam pressure produced a whole range of musical sounds, machine that probably would be of the interest of our modern music researchers’ cybernetics and electronics. Sylvester II was who introduced in Western Europe, bringing them from Arab centers, algebra and the use of the figures known as Arabic, which replaced the system of Roman figures, which had as its main consequence, in addition to greater ease of calculation, the possibility of using the zero, with all the revolutionary applications mathematics that meant this number. Finally, in full X century, produced a machine that raises the question of whether it was already an ancestor of the computer. In fact, as noted by Gérard de Sède, which is interested in Sylvester II in his book on Templars "Les Templiers sont parmi nous" ("The Templars were among us"), speaks about a device ignored that replied with a yes or a no to the questions that it faced, was even able to predict the future. Silvestre II never wanted to reveal the secret of their employment, but always responded to the question of its operation as something very simple, based on the calculation of two figures, i.e. a binary code, like our computers contemporaries. This description corresponds entirely to a computer. At his death, Sylvester II, because of his investigations and especially because of those machines considered by most of the population as a " witchery ", was cursed for centuries, being sometimes deleted from the list of popes. Gerbert will be remembered as a French Benedictine alchemist that, already in the X century, had learned all the knowledge and secrets of our civilization and the Eastern Sciences, and that he was misunderstood in his time, being a true Magician Pope.

Astrology and Religion in the Middle Age

At the beginning of the Middle Ages the astrological fatalism collided with the religious dogmas: with the doctrine of the free will of the Christians and with the Muslim law, because according to the Koran only God knows the future. To try to explain the deep-rooted belief in the astrology without betraying those dogmas, it was used all kinds of arguments. It was recognized that the stars "leaning" but did not oblige; rejected the fatalism but not the astral influences, recognizing that, prevented by the Planets, the man could avoid the dangers that were predicted; this was recognized as a natural astrology and admitted the astral influence on plants and animal life, but were rejected the horoscopes by be presumed as superstition.

Despite all this, astrology enjoyed many adepts; including kings and caliphs, popes and emperors, which had "mathematics" to whose they consulted about personal or official matters. The Arabic influence, which began to manifest itself in the Western Christian world from the eleventh century, contributed largely to this boom, since by natural disposition or in virtue of the Greek culture that had assimilated, cultivated the astrology for religious purposes or to make horoscopes.

The Arab conception of astrology as "decrees of heaven", was born the name of "Judicial Astrology" applied to make horoscopes. The influence of the "Tetrabiblos" can be measured through their translations. This book is one of the first Greek works translated into Arabic (in the second half of the VIII century), and the first work translated from Arabic into Latin, in the first half of the twelfth century. It was translated in many modern languages and until the middle of the twentieth century was the only work of Ptolemy translated into English.

During the Middle Ages the astrology continued his triumphant march: even the Jews cultivated it, although Maimonides the explicitly condemned. In the Byzantine world astrology does not enjoyed greater acceptance, perhaps by the memory of the classical Greek knowledge. On the other hand, was easily introduced in the slave people.

In the Christian world astrology was part of mundane knowledge, with plenty of activity of astrologers and production of astrological works. Began then the linkages between stars and planets and different elements. Dante combined the seven planets with the seven liberal arts and correlated the grammar with the moon, the dialectic with mercury, rhetoric with Venus, arithmetic with the sun, music with Mars, the geometry with Jupiter and the astronomy with Saturn.

He also established the link between astrology and alchemy, and each metal was assigned to a planet, to each operation of the alchemists, a sign: gold to the Sun;  silver to the Moon; iron to Mars; mercury to Mercury; copper to Venus; tin to Jupiter; lead to Saturn; calcination to Aries; freezing to Taurus; mounting to Gemini; dissolution to Cancer; digestion to Leo; distillation to Virgo; sublimation to Libra; separation to Scorpion; creation to Sagittarius; fermentation to Capricorn; multiplication to Aquarium and projection to Pisces. Also appeared the widespread "astral man", materialization of the doctrine of the macrocosm and microcosm, in which every sign of the zodiac is a member or organ of the human body.

According to one of the established correspondences, current, we have that Aries rules the head and brain; Taurus, the neck and throat; Gemini, shoulders, arms and the lungs; Cancer, the chest; Leo, the upper part of the back, the heart and the spine; Virgo, abdomen and intestines; Libra, the lower back and the kidneys; Scorpio, the pelvis and the lower ducts; Sagittarius, the thighs and the flesh; Capricorn, knees and the skin; Aquarius, legs, ankles and the skin; Pisces, feet, the liver and the lymphatic system.

Thus was born the astrological medicine, which remained in full swing until well into the seventeenth century, when famous doctors recommended astrological uroscopy: without seeing the patient, with only to examine the urine and compiling the horoscope of the moment of urination diagnose the disease. Also appeared an astrological pharmacology, according to which the medicinal plants governed by the sun should be collected on a Sunday or the ruled by the moon on Monday, and so on.

The renaissance period printed the seal of ambivalent time to astrological legacy from the medieval era. Coexist the brilliant renaissance of the sciences and the arts with an infinity of civil and religious wars, with rebellions and with the "Night of San Bartolomé" with pests and famine, calamities which recognize the signs of the wrath of God or of evil spirits. Consequently, escalates the belief in hidden powers, enchantments and Bruges.

The discovery of the nature, characteristic of the Renaissance, raised another ambivalence. The man is faced with two masters: God and Nature. Transcendent one, immanent the other, accordingly the astrology, that vague between heaven and earth, offers the possibility to explain that coexistence. For the first time, astrology was also responsible for the religion: manufactures the horoscope of Christ; the conjunctions indicate the birth, and sometimes death, of the great religions.

The characteristic ambivalence of the period was also noted in many thinkers and scientists compared to astrology. The mathematician Cardano, Paracelsus, medical and chemical, the astronomer Kepler, reconcile the cultivation of science with the belief and practice of astrology. In any case, this contradiction yields a crisis: Kepler exclaimed that its laws were not generated through the influence of Mars and Mercury but inspired by the teachings of Copernicus and Tycho Brahe. But in the final analysis, the Renaissance, in whose womb was brewing the scientific revolution of the XVII century, was also the golden era of astrology. It would be more accurate to say, astrologically speaking, that was its culmination, precisely because in the XVII century begins the decline of astrology.

Western astrology

The IV Century B.C. was a particularly fertile ground for the proliferation of astrology. Plato and Aristotle had a common point of view of the universe, and they spoke about connections between the celestial bodies and the world under the Moon (Earth). Astrology had influenced the study of medicine as evidenced in the work of Hippocrates (460-377 a.C.) that lived on the island of Cos. Hippocrates defined the four humors, which he said are found in the blood (hot and humid), in the yellow bile (hot and dry), in the black bile (cold and dry), and in the phlegm (cold and wet) and established the correspondences of these humors with planets.

In the year 140 B.C. Hiparco of Bitnia cataloged 1,081 stars, and a few decades after the Syrian Posidonio of Apamea extended their knowledge of magic and Astrology to the school he founded in Rhodes, where he studied both the Romans and the Greeks. Probably Manilus frameworks was influenced by Posidonus of Apamea when he wrote his verses titled "Astronomic".

The Romans, who had a primitive form of divination traditionally practiced by the augurs, received the astrology in the II Century B.C. of the Greeks who lived in the colonies in the south of Italy. The Romans took the Greek system of the Zodiac, appointing the planets with the names of the Roman deities and Latins (names that are still in use) and naming the seven days of the week with the corresponding Gods and planets. This tradition also influenced the Anglo-Saxon names of the days of the week that still reflect an old connection. Around the year 270 BC they mentioned the judicial and medical astrology in the poem Diosemeia of Greek Aratus of Soli which was translated into Latin and influenced the Romans.

In ancient Rome the Judicial Astrology survived the years of the Republic despite the efforts anti astrological of famous intellectuals of the moment such as Cato (the Censor) and Cicero. In the year 139 B.C. after of the concern of the slaves and the low class in Rome, astrologers were expelled from the roman borders of Italy. In spite of this opposition, astrology gradually came to be accepted among the intellectuals toward the end of the I century B.C. mainly as a result of the spread of Stoicism (that had taken to astrology as part of your system). At the same time that the empire is christianized, the Christian Church began to oppose officially to certain types of astrology in the IV century A.D. (for example in the writings of the Council of Laodicea).

During the Hellenistic Age astrology began to flourish in Egypt through the school of Alexandria, in which the astrological knowledge of Babylonians and Egyptians were melted in Greek philosophy. The earliest Greek Hermetic literature in the II Century A.C. focused in astrology. Fragments of these texts, among which are the Salmeschiniaka and the book of Nechepso and Petosiris, have survived in the Catalogus codicum astrologorum Grecorum, as well as appointments in Arab jobs in the IX century and books written by Latins later.

A poem of astrology, Astronomica, of which there are still five books, was composed at the beginning of the century I A.D. by Marcos Manilius. Manilius collected contemporary knowledge of this science, often in contradictory terms and under the influence of the cosmic vision of the Stoics and their correlation between the macrocosm and microcosm. In the II century A.D. Vetius Valens, an intellectual of Antioch who was in Alexandria, Egypt, compiled the anthology, a job of astrology that displays the new concept of this field as a secret art learned through the initiation.

Ptolemy, one of the most influential intellectuals in the history of astrology, also lived in Alexandria in the century II. Its main tasks were the Almagest by (Greek of the largest) and the Tetrabiblos Quadripartitum (in Latin). The Almagest was a work of astronomy that taught as predict celestial phenomena through the use of mathematics. The Tetrabiblos became the main text for astrologers and occultists of the Western world by several centuries.

Ptolemy met the knowledge of Chaldean and Egyptian astrology and re-interpreted it at the light of Greek philosophy, in particular from the perspective of the Stoics. The idea is that the whole matter is linked in a continuous cosmic and it became a rational explanation for the relation between the changes in the universe (macrocosm) and in the man (microcosm). The magic and traditions such as the symbolism, palmistry, geomancy were annexed to the divination astrology, although these have not changed the basic principles of astrology.

The work of Ptolemy was an authority for centuries, particularly in Constantinople (Byzantium), the capital of the eastern part of the empire where the Greeks remained as the language speaker. In the year 500 A.C., Retorius introduced, among other elements, the division of the Zodiac signs in triads, corresponding to the four classic elements.

Although some theological schools in Byzantium accepted Astrology, several Christian emperors like Constantine, Teodocio, and Valerian, began to ban and threatened to astrologers with exile. In the first years of the century V, in Plato's Academy of Athens, the last bastion of the pre-Christian culture, Proclo (410-485) commented the Tetrabiblos with respect to the stars as a "secondary cause of terrestrial events". But in the year 529, the emperor Justinian (527-565) closed the Academy, saying that it was a center of pagan thought and much of the scholars of Athens fled to Persia and Syria.


Astrology in Christianity

The conversion of Constantine the Great to Christianity put end to the importance of this science, which for more than 500 years had governed the public life of Rome. In the year 321, Constantine issued an edict threatening to kill all the Chaldeans, magicians, and their followers. With this astrology disappeared during centuries of the Christian areas of western Europe. Only Arab schools in teaching, especially from Spain after the Moors conquered the Iberian Peninsula, accepted the wisdom of classic era. Schools for Arabs and Jews children were the representatives of astrology in the Middle Ages, while the church and some governments of Christians countries rejected and persecuted.

The Caliph Al-Mansur, Baghdad's builder was as his son, the famous Harun al-Rashid, a promoter of education. It was the first Caliph who called Jewish students to develop in his empire the study of mathematics, especially astronomy. In the year 777 the learned Jew Jacob ben Tarik founded in Baghdad a school for the study of astronomy and astrology that soon had a great reputation; between those who studied here was Alquindi (Alkendi), a notorious astronomer.

It was one of the inmates of Alquindi, Abumassar (Abu Mashar), Bath in Chorassan, born around the year 805, who was the largest Arab astrologer of the Middle Ages. Among Jew astrologers more reputed can be mention Sahl ben Bishr al-Israel (near the 820); Rabban al-Taban, the well-known kabbalist and talmudic school; Shabbethai Donalo (913-970), who wrote a commentary of the Sepher Yezirah astrology which was then a standard work in Western Europe; and finally, the lyric poet and mathematician Jew Abraham ibn Ezra.

The recreation of the astrology was driven by Jew school children who lived in Christian lands, since the considered as a necessary part of the Kabbalistic studies and talmudic.

The didactic poem "Imago Mundi", written by Gauthier of Metz in 1245, has an entire chapter about astrology. Pierre d'Ailly, the notorious French theologian and astronomer, wrote a number of treaties about the subject. The public importance of Astrology grew together with the internal disorder of the Church, to grew and declined with the papal and imperial power. Toward the end of the Middle Ages almost all the princes, as well as each regent of importance, had his astrologer in their courts, people like Angelo Catto, the astrologer of Louis XI of France. The renaissance of classical education brought a second period of prosperity for the astrology.

Toward the end of the twelfth century the Florentines used to Guido Bonatti as its official astrologer. Emperors and Popes became devotees of astrology, the emperors Charles IV and V, and the popes Sixtus IV, July II, Leo X, and Paul III. Amid the jealous patterns of science were the Medici. Catalina de Medici made astrology popular in France. It was erected an Astrological Observatory for her close to Paris, and his astrologer of the court was the famous Doctor Michel de Notre Dame (Nostradamus) that published in 1555 his main work on astrology.

Another well-known man was Luke Gauricus, the astrologer of the court of the Popes Leo X and Clement VII, which published a large number of astrological treaties. Some of the past romans astrologers among whom was probably Firmicus Maternus, thought reform astrology idealizing and raising its moral tone. The same purpose encouraged Paolo Toscanelli, called Maistro Pagollo, a doctor widely respected by the piety of his life, that belonged to the scholarly and artistic circle that met the brother Ambrosius Camaldulensis in the monastery of Los Angeles. They were special teachers of astrology in the universities of Pavia, Bologna and even in La Sapienza during the pontificate of Leo X.

The three intellectual centers of astrology in the most magnificent period of the Renaissance were Bologna, Milan and Mantua. The work of J.A. Campanus, published in Rome in 1495, and often commented, "Oratio initio studii Perugiae dwells" showed a clear light on the lack of understanding shown by the Fathers of the Church in its attitude toward the pagan fatalism.

Even the victorious progress of the Copernican system could not destroy the confidence in astrology. The greatest astronomers were still obliged to assign their time to make astrological predictions in the slices per well to the gain; Tycho Brahe made calculations for the Emperor Rudolf II, and the same Kepler, the most distinguished astronomer of the time, was astrologer of the imperial court. In the same period were written astrological treaties by the most famous of the English astrologer, William Lilly of Diseworth, Leicestershire, who received a pension of 100 pounds of the State Council of Cromwell. Among his work was one frequently published, "Christian Astrology".

The last astrologer of importance on the European continent was Jean-Baptiste Morin, that made the "Galica Astrology" in 1661.


Ancient History of Astrology

Bharat (India)

In Bharat exists today records that clearly point to a highly developed knowledge of astrology of almost 6,500 years old B.C. and manuscripts show documents that were written near the 3,700 B.C. Some of the originals have been destroyed or are lost but copies of these were made by astrologers and can be found in the libraries of the Maharajas and in some states in Bharat.
 One of the most ancient authors of Vedic Astrology, copies of whose works have not been found is Pita Maha who wrote a treaty called Pita Maha Siddhanta.
He lived and wrote this book about 3000 BC 500 years after another writer called Vashishttha wrote several books in astrology, astronomy and philosophy. In the book called "You and Your Hand" by Count Louis Hamon, better known as Cheiro, found this statement: "people in ignorance of which disdains the wisdom of ancient races forget that the great past of India contains secrets of life and philosophy that the following civilizations could not contravene, but were forced to accept it.
For example, it has been demonstrated that the ancient Hindu understood the precession of the equinox and calculated that this (a complete cycle) is carried out every 25,870 years.
 The observation and mathematical accuracy needed to establish this theory has been the wonder and admiration of modern astronomers.
They, with their modern knowledge and current instruments continue to argue among themselves if the precession - the most important feature in the astronomy is done every 25,870 years or every 24,500 years.
The majority believed that the Hindus are not mistaken, but as they reached this calculation is a great mystery as the same origin".

Babylonians Beginning

To the Babylonians are credited the birth of astrology. Their charts allowed them to predict the recurrence of the stations and certain celestial events. Thus, in the beginning and for more than 2,000 years, astrology and astronomy were the same science. Astrology was introduced in Babylon by the Greeks in the first part of the IV Century A.D. and through studies of Plato and Aristotle and others, astrology was referred to us as a science. It was soon taken by the Romans (we still use the Romans names for the zodiacal signs) and the Arabs extended over the entire world. Astrology as we know it today began in the European world in the beginning of the Greek civilization (the word astrology comes from the Greek Astron, star and logos, study). The study of the stars had purposes both scientific and religious. The step of the stars provided the basis for calculating the calendars; they also represented a natural clock at a moment without clocks and gave important points of reference for navigation. A Chaldean priest of Belus, Berosus, which settled in Cos to teach, probably at the beginning of the fourth century B.C., was awarded traditionally to have entered the astrology to Greece. However, the Greeks were already interested in the study of stars from the antiquity. The philosopher presocratic such (625-547 B.C.) who founded the ionic school, philosophy that have any theories the origin of the universe from a simple principle, and Pythagoras of Samos (580-500 B.C.) founder of Pythagonearism (a philosophical system that combines the medicine, astronomy, the musical scales and mathematics to describe the reality in terms of numbers), had already put his attention to the stars and speculated about the nature and constitution of the heavenly bodies.

Other antecedents

In the beginning the astrology of Mesopotamia was as other cultures, a simple observation of the sky to search for influence that could affect the kingdom. These observations included climatic phenomena, mixed with astronomical. What made the difference was that the natives of Mesopotamia began to make systematic observations of the phenomena to find regular patterns in heaven and correlate them with events.
According to the researchers, the leadings astronomical writings known of Mesopotamia come from the oldest period Babylonian near the time of Hammurabi. It is not known if the Sumerians were involved in astronomical studies but it seems that yes.
There are even some writings that relate to the period of the Akadios, near the 2300 Before Christ. This is an example of such written: "If Venus appears in the east in the month Airu and the Twins, large and small, are surrounded by the four and she is dark then the king of Elam falls sick and not be alive."
The natives of Mesopotamia believed that the stars and planets were associated with or were themselves the gods. Ishtar-Venus was one of the largest divinities of people.
The Egyptians had the same notion and identified the constellation Orion with Osiris. But Osiris was a god of the dead that governed the underworld. Transport to the heavens was very similar to other transport facts in classical mythology. 
The researchers give three phases in the evolution of astrology.
The first consists of the mentioned above, which is essentially questions of astronomical observation. The second phase is very much related to this but has a Zodiac in the modern sense of the term with twelve signs of 30 degrees each.
There are no personal horoscopes in this middle level but gives much attention to the transits of Jupiter through the signs to an approximate range of a sign per year.
 Here you see clearly an offspring of the Chinese practice of assigning a year to each zodiacal sign and probably also the annual progressions of astrology hourly. Here too there are no houses of any kind. The academics date this second phase between the years 630 and 450 before the Christian era. The zodiac at this point is clearly one sidereal.
The third phase is the astrology horoscopes. Several ancient sources mention the "Chaldeans" who made several natal charts of different people. It is mentioned that according to Aristotle is made him a prognosis Chaldean the death of Socrates on the basis of your natal chart. Reference is made to the Chaldeans and of course that refers to the art in this period was fully associated with recent Babylonians, i.e. with the Chaldeans.
It has been found many natal charts written with cuneiform characters. Most data of the Hellenistic age near the 410 b.c. other researchers say that was in Egypt the astrology home. However, some researchers claim that the most ancient texts were lost when a catastrophe occurred which changed the geography of the planet.
And they sustain this with the theory of Russian Emanuel Velikovski that explains such a catastrophe in his book "Worlds in Collision". However, the Book of Enoch, of the apocryphal Jews and Christians say another thing about who taught astrology and other sciences to the old human beings, although the doctors of the Church say otherwise (see Summa Theological of St Thomas Aquinas).
The most ancient astrological document still in existence is the work called "Namar-Beli" composed by King Sargon I and which is contained in the cuneiform library of King Assurbanipal (668-626 b.C.). Includes observations and astronomical calculations of moon and solar eclipses with astrological predictions.
The oldest mention of the art of astrological prediction in the old classic literature is in "Prometeus Vinctus" of Aeschylus (line 486 and subsequent). Astrology was probably cultivated by the Pythagorean school which kept the exclusivity of a caste. The teaching of Pythagoras on the "harmony of the Spheres" aims to certain astrological hypothesis of the Egyptian priests. The astrology, in the era of Posidonius was called apotelesmatika that indicates the influence of the stars on the final destination of man; i.e. apo, "from"; telos, "end" and matika, "accurate".

The archetypes of Jung and the Tarot

The term archetype was introduced by Carl Gustav Jung - psychiatrist, founder of the school of analytical psychology- at the beginning of the last century. He suggested that after the ego (the human mind) and the personal unconscious (repository of repressed emotions, feelings and traumatic memories) in the structure of the human psyche there is a deeper layer - the collective unconscious. It is the same in all people, being the place of the human experience, which is transmitted from generation to generation.

The contents are the archetypes of the collective unconscious (of the Greeks. Arxetypos, "prototype"). Jung wrote about them as models and patterns of instinctive behavior patterns that influence the perception of reality and the reactions, in some way to the events in our life. This is the shape of the main concepts of the world, of life and human relations, which are basic, as the instincts of the animals, and that do not depend on the level of education.

In their studies, very soon, came to the conclusion that the existence of archetypes, through the exploration of dreams, the images and the hallucinations of their patients. They found that ancient symbols, mythological figures and images, there were, even in those who never had seen before, who were not interested in the history of the ancient civilizations and did not know mythology. Suddenly seemed to be an absolutely understand.

Another test of his theory, Jung believed that the fairy tales, legends and religious texts of various peoples of the world were built on the same stories - the history of love, loyalty, betrayal, revenge, the death and the Resurrection. We see in these archetypes characters similar corresponding to God, the devil, The Wise Old Man, Mother, Hero, children, etc. All of them present in the folkloric heritage since remote times and isolated frequently from one culture to another, that also have a similar content, semantics and emotions.

If something happens in life, which corresponds to an archetype, it becomes active, and it reaches an irresistible compulsion that, like the instinctive reaction prevails, despite the reason and free will.

There are archetypes, as many as typical situations of life - explains Jung:

The archetypes do not elect to influence or influence in us, simply can be activated when the circumstances of our life will fit in a recognizable archetypal history. In reality this is the mechanism of action of the archetype. They are therefore in a situation of struggle, when we have to deal with something or someone, we can discover the qualities of an enviable courage, desire or not sacrificed and that appeared in us not as a result of learning . This is the manifestation of "primitive instincts mental" - archetypes.

In this case, we can talk about the impact of the archetype of the hero. Touch the process of life with different archetypes and through this opening to the contents of the unconscious, the man passes through the path of the individualization - the path of self-knowledge and acceptance of itself in all its forms, which leads to the discovery of the real "me" and its potential.
Jung called this the "opening of himself". The archetype of the Be - is the archetype of the entirety of the unity of the conscious and unconscious. It is the achievement of myself, the achievement of the understanding of what you are in reality, is the main task of the individuation."… The Consciousness - Jung writes, - will no longer be vulnerable too selfish all the desires, fears, hopes and ambitions … On the contrary, assumes the role of contact with the world of objects, which leads a man to the absolute communion and indissoluble union with the world in general.

Jung and the archetypes in the Tarot

The Tarot cards have been the subject of various approaches: the most common considers it as a divinatory mancia; the other approach, and to some people more disturbing, consider them as a symbolic language the bearer of a psychological knowledge and philosophical. The first trend has been unfortunately a popularization and it has spread primarily as a means to read the future.

The second, in our present era, considers the Tarot a map of the processes and circumstances before whom we encounter the human beings in the extraordinary journey through life. A language for the expression of psychological ideas.  This current, in our time, was driven mainly by the exceptional psychologist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961).

According to Jung, the model that discovers the Tarot is not another thing that the deployment of the soul life. Jung, who had no prejudice to the time to address the knowledge, also investigated the Alchemy, astrology and the I-Ching. It was he himself who translated ancient knowledge, rediscovering that in the human psyche there is an autonomous process, independent of the time or geographical location, which aspires to a goal which he named process of individualization.

Our psyche is split, split between the conscious and the unconscious, between what we know and what we ignore. Individuation refers to the process through which integrates all the polarities, dualities and internal contradictions. We can access a new balance, through the flavors and troubles of the human experience.

These experiences, of which we are learning, Jung discovered that are archetypical, are repeated in all eras and cultures under different guises. Then, in the Tarot we are with these key experiences or archetypal experiences recounted in a visual language, shocking and by some very deep. These archetypes are among others, the mother, the Father, love, justice, the Transformation, the crisis, the sacrifice, etc.

The philosopher and mathematician Russian Piotr Ouspensky (1878-1947), co-creator of the Fourth Way, classified the Tarot as a philosophical machine. Ouspensky referred to the Tarot as an abacus philosophical, said: "it is an instrument for the exercise of the mind, for getting them used to new concepts and wider, to think in a world of higher dimensions and to the understanding of the symbols".

And even more so the Tarot is a tool for guidance and self-awareness, provided to learn the skills to read its symbology. For example, the card that starts the deck is The Fool. Let us look at some of the characteristics of its complex symbology. The Fool symbolizes the individual that lacks awareness of oneself as a person, i.e. that is in a phase of such immaturity and infantilism that has not yet reached the stage of development of consciousness. It is out of every order and shape, and any law that is compatible with the others. Can be neurotic, always moving in a circle around his problem, without going to any part determined. It is the eternal turn of the individual without objective defined, without a specific target. Means, movement, displacement, travel, changes, but in an unexpected way, improvised and unexpectedly.

Person who lives and enjoys the present, that takes all the juice that can to immediate, unconcerned about the damage that could cause. The Fool represents the spirit of the game, capricious, wanderer, with unlimited energy, walking without fatigue by the universe without goal known. Without worrying about what is to come, even look over your shoulder.

The Fool is that deep impulse of the unconscious that moves us to search. The Fool is lonely; its method, secret is a nomad energetic, immortal and present in all parties. It is the most powerful of all the arcane of the Tarot. It has no fixed number, it is free to travel at whim, disrupting the order in their attacks. In any game (as the jester, or Joker) bursts unexpectedly creating a stir huge. The Fool has a connection with the primary energy of fire and its habit of dancing invisible in the middle of the deck, providing new impetus to each card.

The Fool connects two worlds between them, the everyday and the imagination, he moves freely between them and also get confused from time to time. The Fool represents the idealistic, naive, played that moves guided by their instincts, which sometimes can put you in danger. His curiosity impulsive leads us toward impossible dreams while, at the same time his playful nature will return us to the world easy of our childhood. Assumed that it is a part of ourselves separate from our ego aware, can lie mental traps or at least confuse our language. Sometimes his jokes introduce us in places where our ego would never have dared to go.

The Fool represents a part of us which innocent but knowing what it does, is engaged in the search of self-knowledge. Through the experiences that we look know mad, but that then we will recognize as crucial for the confirmation of our lives.